Why These Victorian Views?*

The Victorian Era ended more than 100 years ago. But, if you think about it, that era’s customs, culture, and so on still exert influence, especially in the West. Just as one example, consider the tradition of the white wedding dress. That wasn’t a custom until Queen Victoria chose to wear a white dress for her own wedding. And that’s not to mention the many other beliefs, ‘rules,’ and so on that became a part of that era. One post isn’t nearly enough to do justice to the topic, but it’s interesting to take a glance at it.

We see the influence of this era in a lot of ways in crime fiction. And, as you’ll see, I’m not really talking of the crime fiction (such as Arthur Conan Doyle’s) that was written during the Victorian years. Even novels written after those years ended show the era’s influence.

One of the very important characteristics of the era was an emphasis on doing one’s duty. We see that, for instance, in Agatha Christie’s Five Little Pigs (AKA Murder in Retrospect). In that novel, Carla Lemarchant hires Hercule Poirot to solve the sixteen-year-old murder of her father, famous painter Amyas Crale. At the time, Crale’s wife (and Carla’s mother) Caroline was suspected of the murder, and with good reason. In fact, she was arrested and convicted, and died in prison a year later. Carla insists her mother was innocent, and wants Poirot to clear her name. In order to find out the truth, Poirot interviews the five people who were present at the time. He also gets their written accounts of the murder and the days leading up to it. One of those people is Cecilia Williams, who acted as governess to Carla’s aunt, Angela Warren. Here’s what we learn about Miss Williams:
 

‘She had that enormous mental and moral advantage of a strict Victorian upbringing…she had done her duty in that station in life to which it had pleased God to call her, and that assurance encased her in an armour impregnable to the slings and darts of envy, discontent and regret.’
 

In other ways, too, Miss Williams reflects Victorian attitudes. For example, one of the ‘people of interest’ in the novel is Elsa Greer Dittisham, who was Crale’s lover at the time of his murder, and who was staying at the house while he painted her portrait. Miss Williams describes her as ‘thoroughly unprincipled.’ Later she says:
 

‘‘Whatever our feelings, we can keep them in decent control. And we can certainly control our actions. That girl had absolutely no morals of any kind. It meant nothing to her that Mr. Crale was a married man. She was absolutely shameless about it all – cool and determined. Possibly she may have been badly brought up, but that’s the only excuse I can find for her.”
 

Miss Williams is as much upset at what she sees as the lack of propriety and ‘proper conduct’ as she is about anything else.

We also see the Victorian emphasis on propriety in Dorothy L. Sayer’s Strong Poison. In the novel, mystery novelist Harriet Vane is tried for the murder of her former lover, Philip Boyes. Lord Peter Wimsey attends the trial and immediately becomes smitten with Vane. In fact, he determines to clear her name, so that he can marry her. And, with help of some friends, as well as his valet/assistant, Mervyn Bunter, that’s exactly what he does. As the story goes on, we learn that Vane and Boyes lived together before their relationship ended. Since they never married, that’s very much held against her. In keeping with the Victorian view of what was ‘proper,’ it’s considered inappropriate to cohabit. The fact of their relationship is almost less important than the fact that Vane behaved in an ‘unseemly’ way.

We also see that attitude in Brian Stoddart’s Superintendent Christian ‘Chris’ Le Fanu series, which takes place in 1920’s Madras (today’s Chennai). In one story arc, we learn about the relationship between Le Fanu and his housekeeper, Roisin McPhedren. The two care very much about each other, but their relationship is doomed. For one thing, Le Fanu is, at least in name, married. His wife, who now lives in England, wants a divorce, but that’s somewhat scandalous. For another, Le Fanu and McPhedren live in the same house, and are not married. If any whispers got around that they had more than a professional relationship, that would mean the end of La Fanu’s career. Such impropriety isn’t in keeping with the ideals he’s supposed to be upholding. And that’s to say nothing of what would happen to Roisin McPhedren’s reputation. There would be no way she could get any kind of ‘respectable’ employment. This series offers a look at Victorian attitudes towards class and race, as well, and how they impacted the British Raj.

There’s an interesting example of the Victorian perspective in Nicholas Blake’s The Beast Must Die. In it, poet and private investigator Nigel Strangeways looks into the poisoning death of George Rattery. The most obvious suspect is crime writer Frank Cairnes, who holds Rattery responsible for the death of his son, Martin ‘Martie.’ But Cairnes says that he’s innocent, and there are solid reasons to believe him. What’s more, as Strangeways discovers, Cairnes is not the only possible suspect. For one thing, it turns out that Rattery was having an affair with a woman named Rhoda Carfax. Rattery’s mother, Ethel, is
 

‘…crazy about family honour, and being a Victorian she looks upon sexual scandal as the arch-disgrace.’ 
 

That passion for ‘respectability’ could have been part of a motive for murder. Among other things, it’s an interesting look at that need to be ‘respectable.’

There’s also an interesting look at the impact of the Victorian-Era perspective in Wendy James’ Out of the Silence. This novel is James’ fictional retelling of the 1900 Melbourne arrest and conviction of Maggie Heffernan for the murder of her infant son. In the novel, Maggie meets and is wooed by Jack Hardy. He asks her to marry him, but says they need to keep their engagement secret until he can support them. Maggie agrees, and he soon leaves to look for work in New South Wales. In the meantime, Maggie discovers that she’s pregnant, and writes to Jack. Even after several letters, she doesn’t hear from him. Maggie knows her family won’t accept her (what ‘proper’ family would?), so she gets work in a Melbourne Guest House. When baby Jacky arrives, Maggie moves briefly to a home for unwed mothers. Then, she discovers that Jack Hardy has moved to Melbourne, and goes in search of him. When she finally tracks him down, he utterly rejects her. With nowhere else to go, Maggie goes from lodging house to lodging house, and is turned down by six places.  That’s when the tragedy with Jacky occurs. This story takes place in the last year or two of the Victorian Era, and really shows how that perspective influences everything that happens to Maggie, including her own point of view.

There are also other historical series, such as K.B. Owen’s Concordia Wells novels, and Felicity Young’s Dorothy ‘Dody’ McCleland series, that depict Victorian-Era perspectives, world views and mores. Owen’s series takes place at the very end of those years, and Young’s takes place in the Edwardian Era that followed it.

Even today, we can see how the Victorian Era has left its mark. It has on Western society, and it certainly has in crime fiction. Which examples have stayed with you?

ps The ‘photo is of a group of Victorian-era schoolgirls in Allentown, Pennsylvania. Courtesy of the Lehigh County (Pennsylvania) Historical Society.
 
 
 

*NOTE: The title of this post is a line from Ogden Nash and Kurt Weill’s I’m a Stranger Here Myself.

14 Comments

Filed under Agatha Christie, Arthur Conan Doyle, Brian Stoddart, Dorothy L. Sayers, Felicity Young, K.B. Owen, Nicholas Blake, Wendy James

14 responses to “Why These Victorian Views?*

  1. Col

    The Stoddart series is a good one, time for the 3rd book I think.

  2. Very informative post, Margot. I’d never given much thought to how the Victorian era influences us but there are so many ways. Interesting note about the wedding dress. Thanks for the food for thought today. 🙂

  3. One of the great exploration of hypocrisy during the era was Robert Louis Steven’s Jekyll and Hyde story; a crime novel, a psychological novel, and a scathing attack upon Victorians, the story deserves careful reading by all fans of the crime-detective-mystery genre. What do you think?

    • It’s certainly a fascinating look at that era and its conventions, Tim. And it counts, in my book, as a crime story, too. It’s also woven itself into Western culture, so on that score alone, bears reading, I think.

  4. I find it almost to strange to think that Agatha Christie was born in 1890 so was a girl during the Victorian period. There are some terrifying matriarchs in her stories and downtrodden daughters who very much embody a certain idea of Victorian family life and duty.

    • I know what you mean, Christine. She didn’t start publishing until the 1920s, really, so it’s easy to forget she was young during the Victorian Era. It certainly seems to have left its mark on her writing, though, hasn’t it? Your example shows brilliantly how that era impacted people’s writing.

  5. You know, I often wonder if the rise of the serial killer or organised crime novel came about because of the disappearance of the motives that Victorian respectability provided for murder. Also, the historical crime novel and, more recenty, the two time-line novel – all allowing authors to go back to a period when if you wanted rid of an adulterous spouse, strychnine was easier to obtain than divorce. There may be many advantages to our liberal, anything goes society, but it dramatically cuts the believable motivation for murder or blackmail. People should really take the plight of the poor crime writer into consideration before making society better… 😉

    • 😆 You know, I think they should, too, FictionFan! It’d certainly make my job easier! 😉 In all seriousness, you do make some well-taken points about the changes in society. With divorce so easy and socially acceptable, there’s far less motive to kill a spouse/partner. And, with the developments in science, it’s easier to detect things like poison, and to otherwise pin the crime on the right criminal. So I see what you’re saying about the popularity of dual timelines, ‘cold cases,’ and historical novels. All of them give the author some flexibility.

  6. kathy d.

    Oh, but there’s so much violence now, including domestic abuse and other violence against women, street fights, police brutality,fights over drugs, robberies gone wrong, accidental gunshots because of the prevalance of weapon ownership. I live in a big city and every day the local news has some awful stories. So I don’t see less violence here.
    I wish that were so.

  7. My favourite terrifying Victorian matriarch is Great Aunt Caroline in Margery Allingham’s Police at the Funeral. The book was published in 1931, but the family obviously originated in Victorian times, and were still living by those standards. She was the archetypal ruthless mother imposing her will and standards on everyone else.

    • Thanks, Moira. That’s exactly and precisely the sort of character I had in mind with this post, so I’m very glad you mentioned her. There’s just something about those redoubtable Victorian maiden aunts and matriarchs…

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