Category Archives: Ian Rankin

This Warehouse Frightens Me*

Many companies use warehouses to store things until they are shipped or delivered. And, of course, there’s a big business in residential/individual storage too. That makes sense, as people look for a house, serve in the military, and so on. There’s even a US TV show about goods in storage, where people bid on the contents of different storage sheds.

If you think about it, warehouses and storage places can make for interesting additions to crime novels. They’re convenient for hiding contraband, weapons, bodies, and so on. And they can be awfully creepy, too. So, it makes sense that we’d see them in the genre.

For example, in Freeman Wills Crofts’ The Cask, the Bullfinch pulls in to the London docks from Rouen. When it arrives, the cargo is unloaded into the warehouse. Tom Broughton, who works for the Insular and Continental Steam Navigation Company, is sent to ensure that a valuable consignment of wine has arrived in good order. He checks the casks, and finds that one weighs more than the others, and that gets his attention right away. Soon enough, when he gets a foreman to open the questionable cask, he finds the body of a woman in it. Inspector Burnley of Scotland Yard investigates, and he works with his French friend and counterpart, M. Lefarge of the Sûreté, to find out who the woman was and who killed her.

Deborah Crombie’s In a Dark House begins with a fire in a warehouse in London’s Southwark area. Firefighters are called in and manage to control the blaze. In the ruins of the warehouse, they find the body of an unknown woman. The police, in the form of Superintendent Duncan Kincaid, are called in and begin to investigate. With help from his partner, Sergeant Gemma James, Kindcaid and his team discover that there are four missing persons reported whose descriptions match that of the woman in the warehouse. So, Kincaid, James, and the team work to find out if the dead woman is one of those people and, if so, which one. In the meantime, there’s the question of who set the warehouse fire – especially after it’s followed by other fires…

There’s a very eerie scene in a storage bunker in Tony Hillerman’s The Wailing Wind. In that novel, Navajo Tribal Police Officer Bernadette ‘Bernie’ Manuelito finds the body of a man slumped over in his car. At first it looks a case of a drunk curled up asleep, but soon enough, it’s clear that this man was murdered. Once it’s clear that this is a crime scene, Sergeant Jim Chee takes over the case, and he works with (now retired) Lieutenant Joe Leaphorn to find the truth. It turns out that this is linked to a five-year-old case that Leaphorn wasn’t able to solve – the first time…

Don Winslow’s The Dawn Patrol features San Diego PI Boone Daniels. He’s approached by Petra Hall, from the law firm Burke, Spitz, and Culliver, to take on a new case. The firm represents Coastal Insurance Company, which is currently facing a lawsuit. Daniel ‘Dan Silver’ Silvieri is suing Coastal for bad faith and damages in the matter of a warehouse he owns. The warehouse burned, and Silvieri applied to the insurance company to cover his losses. But the company suspects this is a case of arson, and won’t pay; hence, the lawsuit. Hall wants Daniels to find a stripper named Tamera Roddick, who was a witness to the fire. Her testimony will be important in this case, and she has gone missing. Daniels doesn’t want to take the case at first, but he is finally persuaded. Not long afterwards, a young woman dies from a fall (or a push) off the balcony of a cheap motel room. She’s got Tamera Roddick’s identification, so at first, Daniels and the police draw the obvious conclusion. But they are soon proved wrong. The dead woman is Tamera’s best friend, another stripper who calls herself Angela Hart. Now, Daniels is drawn into a case of murder, arson, and some very ugly things going on. And the warehouse plays a role in the story.

And then there’s Peter Temple’s Truth. That novel takes place as Melbourne faces a serious threat from bush fires, so everyone’s nerves are stretched. Against this backdrop, Inspector Stephen Villani has some very difficult cases to solve. One of them is the murder of three drug dealers whose mutilated bodies are discovered in an abandoned warehouse. Another is the case of an unidentified woman whose body is found in a posh apartment. As the novel goes on, Villani finds that there are several people, including some in his own department, who do not want the truth about these cases to come out.

There are plenty of other examples, too, of crime stories where storage places and warehouses play roles (right, fans of Ian Rankin’s Doors Open?). And it’s not hard to see why. They’re very seldom carefully watched, they offer space for…whatever, and they can be positively creepy. These are just a few examples, to show you what I mean. Your turn.


*NOTE: The title of this post is a line from Dave Matthews’ Warehouse.


Filed under Deborah Crombie, Don Winslow, Freeman Wills Crofts, Ian Rankin, Peter Temple, Tony Hillerman

This is a Forgery*

Forgery in its many forms is a big business. And it’s easy to see why. A forged signature can give one access to all sorts of things, including a lot of money. We’ve all read of stories where a supposed masterwork of art sold for a lot of money, only to be identified as a forgery later. And forged documents, such as passports and driving licenses, can, of course, be very valuable. It can be hard to prove a forgery, too. Even handwriting experts don’t always agree on whether a particular sample is really a given person’s writing. And art experts don’t always agree on whether a given piece of art is or is not genuine.

All of this is, as you know, illegal. So, it’s also fairly risky. It’s also no surprise at all that we see forgery in crime fiction as much as we do. There’s often a lot at stake, and the fact of forgery can add a plot twist, some tension, or even character development to a crime novel.

In Arthur Conan Doyle’s The Adventure of the Stockbroker’s Clerk, we are introduced to Hall Pycroft. He’s recently been made redundant and was in search of a new position. He was offered a good position with another stockbroking firm; in fact, he was at the point of starting. But then, he was approached by a man named Arthur Pinner, who offered him a very well-paid job with a new company he was starting. Pycroft is concerned with some of the aspects of the job interview, and with the fact the he’s been asked not to let the other stockbroking firm know he won’t be starting there. So, he visits Sherlock Holmes to ask for his help. Holmes takes the case, and he and Watson travel with Pycroft to visit Pinner. It’s not long before Holmes discovers that Pycroft was very nearly taken advantage of, and that forgery is involved.

In Eric Ambler’s The Mask of Dimitrios/A Coffin For Dimitrios, mystery novelist Charles Latimer learns of a legendary criminal named Dimitrious Makropoulos. He’s apparently been involved in several crimes, including murder and attempted murder. As Latimer learns, Makropoulos’ body has recently been pulled from the Bosporus and is now in the local mortuary. Latimer gets the chance to view the body, and as he does so, he decides to learn more about this man. His plan is to trace Makrapoulos’ life and find out how and why he did what he did. So, Latimer sets out on what proves to be a very dangerous journey. In the process, he meets several ruthless people who don’t want him to find the answers he seeks. He also runs into a problem as he searches for Makropoulos’ ‘footsteps.’ It seems that Makrapoulos was an expert at getting and using forged passports and other identity documents. So, it’s not always easy to follow his trail. Still, Latimer persists, and we eventually learn the truth about Makrapoulos’ life. Among other things, this novel offers a look at how forged paperwork can get a person from one place to another. It’s not as easy to do now as it was in 1939, when this novel was published, but it does happen.

Several of Agatha Christie’s novels and stories include forged passports, wills, or other important documents. In the interest of not giving away spoilers, I’ll just mention one: Hallowe’en Party. In that novel, Joyce Reynolds is murdered at a Hallowe’en party. Just hours earlier, she bragged about having seen a murder, so it doesn’t take much detection to guess that Joyce was killed to prevent her saying anything more about that murder. Detective novelist Ariadne Oliver is in the area, staying with a friend. She’s terribly upset about Joyce’s murder, and asks Hercule Poirot to find out who is responsible. He starts by accepting the fact that Joyce might have seen a murder and tries to find out which murder she would have seen. It turns out the history of the town plays a major role in this case. So does a case of forgery.

Patricia Highsmith’s Ripley Under Ground sees her anti-hero, Tom Ripley, settled in a country home in France, with his wife, Heloise. He and his friends, Jeff Constant, Ed Banbury and Bernard Tufts, manage a very successful ‘enterprise.’ They’ve convinced a Bond Street gallery, the Buckmaster Gallery, to handle the work of Philip Derwatt. The painter himself was relatively unknown during his life and died a few years ago. But his work lives on through forgery. Tufts does the actual painting, and the others create flyers and other material to keep the work in the public eye. All goes very well until an American art enthusiast named Thomas Murchison visits the Buckmaster, wanting to see Derwatt’s work. He notices a few subtle but real differences between genuine Derwatt’s he’s seen, and the work the Buckmaster carries. The forgery team finds this out, and they decide that Ripley will go to London, pretend to be Derwatt, and convince Murchison that all of the work is genuine. The ruse doesn’t end up being successful, and now, Ripley has a major problem on his hand. He solves the ‘Murchison problem’ in his own way, only to find he has even bigger problems…

And then there’s Ian Rankin’s Doors Open. In it, wealthy Mike Mackenzie devises a scheme with his friend, Allan Cruikshank, a local gangster called Chib Calloway, and art professor Robert Gissing. The plan is to rob the Scottish National Gallery of some of its masterpieces and replace them with forgeries created by one of Gissing’s students. The group chooses the gallery’s Doors Open day, since the warehouse and other private areas will be open to the public. The theft is carefully planned, and actually goes off on schedule. But the group soon finds out that just stealing valuable artwork is only the beginning of actually benefitting from it…

There are many other books and stories that focus on forgery. It makes sense, too, considering how lucrative it can be, and how much at stake there sometimes is. Forgeries can add tension and suspense to a plot, and sometimes a layer of character development. Which examples have stayed with you?


*NOTE: The title of this post is the title of a song by Dashboard Confessional.


Filed under Agatha Christie, Arthur Conan Doyle, Eric Ambler, Ian Rankin, Patricia Highsmith

Gotta Get Down To It*

One of the more challenging jobs that police do is manage crowds of people. On the one hand, safety is the most important consideration. So, the police have to ensure that people aren’t looting, hurting each other, or worse. On the other hand, most of us agree that people have the right to go about their business, even in large crowds, without being stopped by the police. In many countries, too, it’s been determined that people have the right to protest peacefully, and protests and marches can draw large crowds.

The balance between protecting people’s rights, and ensuring public order and safety isn’t an easy one. And the vast majority of police strike that balance. If you think about it, a large number of crowd events, whether for fun, for protest, or something else, go off quite smoothly. But even so, they can be tense, and some spill over into conflict, or worse.

That’s certainly true in real life, and it’s true in crime fiction, too. For instance, in Agatha Christie’s The ABC Murders, Hercule Poirot, Chief Inspector Japp, and several local police officers, are looking for an elusive killer. Their target has already killed three people, and has warned that there’ll be more deaths. Before each murder, the killer sends a cryptic warning to Poirot, so he’s told in advance that this next murder will take place at Doncaster. At first, preventing that murder seems straightforward. But, the police haven’t considered the fact that the St. Leger is to be run in Doncaster on the day the killer has specified. Now, the police have to manage the crowds, look for a killer, and try to keep potential victims safe. In the end, we learn who the murderer is, and what the motive is. But the large crowds on St. Leger day don’t make things any easier.

There’s a very tense set of scenes featuring large crowds and police in Maj Sjöwall and Per Wahlöö’s The Laughing Policeman. In one plot thread of that novel, the Swedish government is preparing for a visit from a US senator. Many, many people are upset at the US’ involvement in Vietnam, and a large protest is staged outside the US Embassy in Stockholm. The police are already stretched rather thin, as the saying goes, and the demonstrators are determined. With the police force pushed to its limit, a gunman boards a bus, killing eight passengers, including Åke Stenström, a police officer. And it turns out that this murderer ‘hid’ that death among the others on the bus.

In Peter Robinson’s A Necessary End, the town of Eastvale gears up for an anti-nuclear demonstration. Several groups have come into town for the occasion, and DCI Alan Banks and his team know that things could turn ugly. So, they prepare as best they can for the crowds. The day of the demonstration arrives, and the police do their best to manage everything. Then, tragedy strikes. Someone takes advantage of the large crowd to murder P.C. Edwin Gill. Banks’ superior officer, Superintendent Richard ‘Dirty Dick’ Burgess, is convinced that one of the demonstrators is responsible for Gill’s murder, and wants Banks to make a quick arrest. But Banks isn’t so sure that the demonstrators had anything to do with the killing. And, as he digs more deeply into the case, he finds that Gill had a reputation as a thug, who abused his authority more than once. So, there are plenty of people in town who could have a very good motive for murder.

Ian Rankin’s Mortal Causes takes place during the Edinburgh Festival, which is always a very difficult time for police. It’s a major tourist draw, there are parties, plenty of drinking, and big events. So, it’s very hard to keep the peace and ensure that everyone is safe. That background is tense enough. Matters get worse when the body of Billy Cunningham is discovered at Mary King’s Close, one of Edinburgh’s busiest streets. It turns out that Cunningham may have had ties to the IRA and to some Scottish ultra-nationalist groups. What’s worse, it turns out that he was the son of Morris Gerald ‘Big Ger’ Cafferty, a local crime boss, and Inspector John Rebus’ nemesis. Cafferty, as you can imagine, is all for dealing with his son’s killers in his own way. But Rebus knows that this could lead to a bloodbath. So, he’ll have to find Cunningham’s killer, find a way to manage Cafferty, and deal with the festival crowds.

And then there’s Felicity Young’s The Anatomy of Death (AKA A Dissection of Murder).  In that novel, which takes place in 1910, Dr. Dorothy ‘Dody’ McCleland returns to London from Edinburgh. She’s just finished qualifying in forensic pathology, and is hoping to work with the noted Dr. Bernard Spilsbury in the Home Office. As she’s waiting for that opportunity, she takes a job at a women’s hospital. She’s no sooner arrived and gotten settled when she learns that a women’s suffrage march in Whitechapel turned very ugly. Several of the protesters were beaten, and many were arrested. There were three deaths, too, and McCleland performs the autopsies. It turns out that one of the deaths, that of Lady Catherine Cartwright, might not have been accidental. And it turns out that this killer used the large crowd as a ‘cover’ for a very deliberate murder.

That happens, too, in Brian Stoddart’s A Madras Miasma, which takes place in 1920 Madras (today’s Chennai). This story takes place during the last years of the British Raj, and there’s a lot of talk of social and political reform. In fact, in one plot thread of the novel, there’s a demonstration against the entrenched British establishment. Stoddart’s protagonist, Superintendent Christian ‘Chris’ Le Fanu, understands both the need to keep order and the benefits of some sort of power-sharing. He’d like the ‘powers that be’ to at least hear out the other side’s arguments. There are plenty of people in the upper levels who don’t want to give up power, though, so the protest takes place.  Le Fanu is sympathetic to the protesters’ cause, but, he is a police officer, and is sworn to uphold the law. The demonstration turns ugly, and Madras Commissioner of Police Arthur Jepson insists that his men use their weapons. At the end of it all, there are twenty-three deaths, and eighty-five people with injuries. One of the dead is a key source of information for another case that Le Fanu is investigating, and he learns that that person was killed by someone who used the large crowd and the unrest to ‘cover up’ the murder.

It’s not easy to be a police officer under the best of circumstances. Add in a large crowd, no matter how peaceful, and things can get very dangerous, very quickly. That’s part of what makes such scenes so suspenseful, and potentially so effective in a crime novel.


*NOTE: The title of this post is a line from Neil Young’s Ohio.


Filed under Agatha Christie, Brian Stoddart, Felicity Young, Ian Rankin, Maj Sjöwall, Per Wahlöö, Peter Robinson

Watching My Favorite Reality Show*

I’ll bet you’ve watched at least some of them. They can be addictive, even as you admit they’re not exactly edifying. Yes, I’m talking about TV competitions and reality shows. They’re everywhere, and they cover all sorts of topics. There’s MasterChef Australia, Power Couple, The Chase, Cash Cab, Survivor, and The Bachelor, to name just a few.

They’ve found their way into crime fiction, too, and that’s not surprising. All sorts of things can go on when the camera is turned off. And there’s the suspense and tension of the competition, too. And that’s to say nothing of the stress of the ‘ratings war.’ So, it’s little wonder that we see those shows in the genre.

In Elizabeth Spann Craig’s Delicious and Suspicious, we are introduced to Lulu Taylor, who owns Aunt Pat’s Barbecue, one of Memphis’ popular restaurants. Aunt Pat’s has a chance at television fame (and the resulting increase in sales) when Rebecca Adrian, food critic for the Cooking Channel, visits. She’s in Memphis to search for the best barbecue restaurant in the city, and Aunt Pat’s is a strong contender. It’s exciting to think of the possibilities that the fame will bring, but Adrian is, to say the least, not a pleasant guest. She alienates nearly everyone. Still, Taylor makes certain that she serves the very best the restaurant can provide. Only hours later, Adrian dies of what turns out to be poison. And it’s not long before gossip starts about Aunt Pat’s. Mostly in order to clear her restaurant’s name, Taylor starts asking questions to find out who the killer really is.

Isis Crawford’s A Catered Christmas features a cooking competition on a popular local television show. The Hortense Calabash Cooking Show has invited five local caterers to compete on the show. One of those companies is A Little Taste of Heaven, which is run by sisters Bertie and Libby Simmons. It’s an exciting chance at important publicity, so the Simmons sisters get to work planning what they will cook. Then, on the day of the competition, an oven on the show’s set explodes. The blast kills Hortense, and of course, puts an end to the competition. The natural conclusion is that one of the five competitors must have been responsible. But it’s not the only possibility, and it turns out that Hortense had plenty of enemies. So, the Simmons sisters have a number of possible suspects as they look for answers.

A reality show turns very, very creepy in Ian Rankin’s Dark Entries, a graphic novel illustrated by Werther Dell’Edera, and featuring John Constantine, from the Hellblazer series. In this novel, Constantine (a paranormal investigator) is hired by the staff of Haunted Palace. That’s a reality show in which young contestants are trapped in a ‘haunted house.’ The only way to win is to get into a hidden room and claim the prize. This group of contestants has been bothered by visions and other scary incidents, but they aren’t the ones that the show’s staff have rigged. It seems, instead, that these young people are seeing these visions themselves. Constantine’s been engaged to find out who, or what, is behind the eerie events, before anyone is killed…

Max Allan Collins has written two novels featuring a sort-of reality show called Crime Seen! The host, former sheriff J.C. Harrow, tracks down criminals with the help of tips and information from viewers. In the first, You Can’t Stop Me, the show’s team uncovers a dangerous murderer who just might have been the one who killed Harrow’s family, and got him started with the show. In the second, No One Will Hear You, Harrow is about to wrap up the show, which was never intended to be a permanent fixture. But then, a killer sends a grotesque ‘demo tape,’ challenging the show’s crew to spotlight him. At the same time, there’s another killer at work, too. So, instead of ending production, the team has no choice but to try to find the killers before more people die.

And then there’s Douglas Lindsay’s We Are the Hanged Man. Met DCI Robert Jericho is ‘volunteered’ by Superintendent Dylan to participate as a consultant on a reality show called Britain’s Got Justice. In this show, contestants compete as apprentice police officers, and Jericho is to be one of the experts/judges. As it is, Jericho isn’t particularly interested in doing the show. He’s got other cases and concerns on his mind, and he’s not a big fan of reality television to begin with. Everything changes, though, when one of the contestants, Lorraine, ‘Lo’ Allison, goes missing. At first, it’s suspected that she simply decided to drop out of the competition, and gave no warning. But soon enough, it’s shown that she wanted to win as much as anyone else does. So, the police start a missing person search, and, since Jericho’s been involved with the show, he takes a major part in it. Among other things, this novel takes a cynical look at reality television, its creators, and the people who watch it.

And that’s the thing. A lot of people do watch this sort of TV, even at the same time as they acknowledge that it’s not exactly highbrow. And it can make for a very effective context for a crime novel. Do you ever watch reality/unscripted shows? What’s the draw if you do?




*NOTE: The title of this post is a line from Pascale Picard’s That is the Matter.


Filed under Douglas Lindsay, Elizabeth Spann Craig, Ian Rankin, Isis Crawford, Max Allan Collins, Werther Dell’Edera

The Man Said, Why Do You Think You’re Here?*

counselingPolice work and other criminal investigation can take a real toll on a person. After all, these people see the worst that humans can do to each other, and that can leave scars. Even the most sane, balanced person can get pushed to the breaking point under those circumstances.

That’s why many police departments have psychologists, either on their staff or as professional associates. Of course, that doesn’t mean that the detectives will actually use those services unless required. There’s still, to some extent, a stigma attached to getting mental health care. But more and more, people are seeing the wisdom of getting such support when it’s necessary. And that aspect of police work – the aftermath of a case – can make a fictional character more human and believable.

For example, in Michael Connelly’s The Last Coyote, LAPD detective Harry Bosch is at the end of his proverbial rope. After an incident in which he attacks a superior officer, he’s sent for mandatory psychological counseling, and relieved of his duties until he completes it. Bosch begins his sessions with Dr. Carmen Hinojos, who tries to help him face some of his personal issues. One of them is the fact that his mother was murdered when he was eleven. She was a prostitute, and not a ‘high profile’ one, either. So not much was done to investigate. Feeling at loose ends because of his enforced break from work, Bosch begins to look into his mother’s death again. That case, plus his work with Hinojos, helps Bosch do some of the work he needs to do to start functioning again.

In Ian Rankin’s Resurrection Men, we meet career analyst Andrea Thomson. On the one hand, she’s not a doctor, a psychiatrist, or a psychological therapist. She’s hired by the police (as a freelancer) to work with the detectives on job-related issues. On the other hand, job counseling and mental health counseling aren’t that far apart, so some of the same issues come up. That’s how she meets Inspector John Rebus, who’s just gotten into deep trouble for throwing a mug of cold tea at a supervisor during a meeting. In Rebus’ case, he’s been sent back to Tulliallan Police College for career counseling and a refresher course on working with others. Needless to say, Rebus isn’t happy being pulled from his regular work. Nor is he deeply interested in reflecting on his career. He’s happiest out on the streets, dong his job. He and a group of other detectives who’ve been sent for the same refresher course are given a ‘cold case’ to work, as a way of building their teamwork skills. But that doesn’t stop him working with Sergeant Siobhan Clarke on a case they were already investigating. Throughout the novel, it’s interesting to see how the police view counseling, Thomson, and the process of reflecting on their work.

Jussi Adler-Olsen’s Mercy (AKA The Keeper of Lost Causes) introduces readers to Copenhagen detective Carl Mørck. As the novel opens, he’s just returned to active duty after a line-of-fire incident in which one of his colleagues was killed, and another left with permanent paralysis. Mørck was badly injured, too, and not just physically. He’s never been overly friendly or extroverted, but since his return, he’s been even worse. In fact, no-one wants to work with him. So he’s ‘promoted’ to head a new department called ‘Department Q,’ which will have responsibility for cases of special interest – cold cases. In this way, the Copenhagen police can respond to media and public criticism over unsolved cases, and at the same time get Mørck out of the way. The first case that Mørck and his assistant, Hafez al-Assad re-open is the five-year-old disappearance of promising politician Merete Lynggaard. At the time she went missing, everyone thought she’d had a tragic fall from a ferry. But Mørck and Assad begin to suspect she may still be alive; if so, she may be in grave danger. In the meantime, Mørck’s boss wants him to get some psychological help. The department has recently hired a crisis counselor, Mona Ibsen, and Mørck is strongly encouraged to work with her. He has no desire to face any personal issues, but he is smitten by the new counselor. And it’s both funny and awkward to see how he starts to do the work he needs to do, even if it is for very much the wrong reasons. Fans of this series will know how both his mental health work and his interactions with Mona Ibsen evolve as the series does.

In David Mark’s Sorrow Bound, Hull D.S. Aector McAvoy and his team are up against a dangerous new crime boss. At the same time, they’re dealing with what looks like a series of revenge killings that are related to past police investigations. And all of this takes place during a heat wave that makes everyone miserable. Things aren’t made easier for McAvoy by the fact that he’s been required to attend six sessions of counseling to help him deal with some of the trauma he’s been through recently. Here’s what he says to Sabine Kean, his counselor:

‘‘Look, the people at occupational health have insisted I come for six sessions with a police-approved counselor. I’m doing that. I’m here. I’ll answer your questions, and I’m at great pains not to be rude to you, but it’s hot and I’m tired and I have work to do, and yes, there are lots of places I would rather be. I’m sure you would, too.’’

As the novel goes on, we see how McAvoy’s sessions progress and where they lead him, mentally speaking.

Of course, it’s not only the police who occasionally need mental health support, whether they admit it, or want it, or not. Fans of Åsa Larsson’s Rebecka Martinsson series will know that Martinsson, who is a lawyer, needs and gets quite a lot of psychological counseling after experiencing severe trauma in The Savage Altar (AKA Sun Storm) and The Blood Spilt.

It makes sense to weave this element in to crime novels, since crime is traumatic. So long as it’s not melodramatic, that sort of plot thread can help make characters seem more believable.


*NOTE: The title of this post is a line from Amy Winehouse’s Rehab. 


Filed under Åsa Larsson, David Mark, Ian Rankin, Jussi Adler-Olsen, Michael Connelly